The Art of Computer Programming. Volume 3. Sorting and Searching. 2nd Edition 14421

ISBN9780201896855

Видавництво

Автор

Рік1998

МоваАнглійська

ІлюстраціїЧорнобілі
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Все про “The Art of Computer Programming. Volume 3. Sorting and Searching. 2nd Edition”
Від видавця
This book forms a natural sequel to the material on information structures in Chapter 2 of Volume 1, because it adds the concept of linearly ordered data to the other basic structural ideas.
The title "Sorting and Searching" may sound as if this book is only for those systems programmers who are concerned with the preparation of generalpurpose sorting routines or applications to information retrieval. But in fact the area of sorting and searching provides an ideal framework for discussing a wide variety of important general issues:
How are good algorithms discovered? How can given algorithms and programs be improved? How can the efficiency of algorithms be analyzed mathematically? How can a person choose rationally between different algorithms for the same task? In what senses can algorithms be proved ''best possible''? How does the theory of computing interact with practical considerations? How can external memories like tapes, drums, or disks be used efficiently with large databases?
Indeed, I believe that virtually every important aspect of programming arises somewhere in the context of sorting or searching!
This volume comprises Chapters 5 and 6 of the complete series. Chapter 5 is concerned with sorting into order; this is a large subject that has been divided chiefly into two parts, internal sorting and external sorting. There also are supplementary sections, which develop auxiliary theories about permutations (Section 5.1) and about optimum techniques for sorting (Section 5.3). Chapter 6 deals with the problem of searching for specified items in tables or files; this is subdivided into methods that search sequentially, or by comparison of keys, or by digital properties, or by hashing, and then the more difficult problem of secondary key retrieval is considered. There searching related to sorting is a surprising amount of interplay between both chapters, with strong analogies tying the topics together. Two important varieties of information structures are also discussed, in addition to those considered in Chapter 2, namely priority queues (Section 5.2.3) and linear lists represented as balanced trees (Section 6.2.3).
Like Volumes 1 and 2, this book includes a lot of material that does not appear in other publications. Many people have kindly written to me about their ideas, or spoken to me about them, and I hope that I have not distorted the material too badly when I have presented it in my own words.
I have not had time to search the patent literature systematically; indeed, I decry the current tendency to seek patents on algorithms (see Section 5.4.5). If somebody sends me a copy of a relevant patent not presently cited in this book, I will dutifully refer to it in future editions. However, I want to encourage people to continue the centuriesold mathematical tradition of putting newly discovered algorithms into the public domain. There are better ways to earn a living than to prevent other people from making use of one's contributions to computer science.
Before I retired from teaching, I used this book as a text for a student's second course in data structures, at the juniortograduate level, omitting most of the mathematical material. I also used the mathematical portions of this book as the basis for graduatelevel courses in the analysis of algorithms, emphasizing especially Sections 5.1, 5.2.2, 6.3, and 6.4. A graduatelevel course on concrete computational complexity could also be based on Sections 5.3, and 5.4.4, together with Sections 4.3.3, 4.6.3, and 4.6.4 of Volume 2.
For the most part this book is selfcontained, except for occasional discussions relating to the MIX computer explained in Volume 1. Appendix B MIX computer contains a summary of the mathematical notations used, some of which are a little different from those found in traditional mathematics books. Preface to the Second Edition
This new edition matches the third editions of Volumes 1 and 2, in which I have been able to celebrate the completion of TeX and MF by applying those systems to the publications they were designed for.
The conversion to electronic format has given me the opportunity to go over every word of the text and every punctuation mark. I've tried to retain the youthful exuberance of my original sentences while perhaps adding some more mature judgment. Dozens of new exercises have been added; dozens of old exercises have been given new and improved answers. Changes appear everywhere, but most significantly in Sections 5.1.4 (about permutations and tableaux), 5.3 (about optimum sorting), 5.4.9 (about disk sorting), 6.2.2 (about entropy), 6.4 (about universal hashing), and 6.5 (about multidimensional trees and tries).
The Art of Computer Programming is, however, still a work in progress. Research on sorting and searching continues to grow at a phenomenal rate. Therefore some parts of this book are headed by an ''under construction'' icon, to apologize for the fact that the material is not uptodate. For example, if I were teaching an undergraduate class on data structures today, I would surely discuss randomized structures such as treaps at some length; but at present, I am only able to cite the principal papers on the subject, and to announce plans for a future Section 6.2.5 (see page 6.2.5). My files are bursting with important material that I plan to include in the final, glorious, third edition of Volume 3, perhaps 17 years from now. But I must finish Volumes 4 and 5 first, and I do not want to delay their publication any more than absolutely necessary.
I am enormously grateful to the many hundreds of people who have helped me to gather and refine this material during the past 35 years. Most of the hard work of preparing the new edition was accomplished by Phyllis Winkler (who put the text of the first edition into TeX form), by Silvio Levy (who edited it extensively and helped to prepare several dozen illustrations), and by Jeffrey Oldham (who converted more than 250 of the original illustrations to METAPOST format). The production staff at Addison Wesley has also been extremely helpful, as usual.
D. E. K. Stanford, California. February 1998
From the Back Cover
The bible of all fundamental algorithms and the work that taught many of today's software developers most of what they know about computer programming.
Byte, September 1995
I can't begin to tell you how many pleasurable hours of study and recreation they have afforded me! I have pored over them in cars, restaurants, at work, at home... and even at a Little League game when my son wasn't in the lineup.
Charles Long
If you think you're a really good programmer... read [Knuth's] Art of Computer Programming... You should definitely send me a resume if you can read the whole thing.
Bill Gates
It's always a pleasure when a problem is hard enough that you have to get the Knuths off the shelf. I find that merely opening one has a very useful terrorizing effect on computers.
Jonathan Laventhol
The first revision of this third volume is the most comprehensive survey of classical computer techniques for sorting and searching. It extends the treatment of data structures in Volume 1 to consider both large and small databases and internal and external memories. The book contains a selection of carefully checked computer methods, with a quantitative analysis of their efficiency. Outstanding features of the second edition include a revised section on optimum sorting and new discussions of the theory of permutations and of universal hashing.
Зміст
Table of Contents
5. Sorting.
Combinatorial Properties of Permutations.
Inversions.
Permutations of a Multiset.
Runs.
Tableaux and Involutions.
Internal sorting.
Sorting by Insertion.
Sorting by Exchanging.
Sorting by Selection.
Sorting by Merging.
Sorting by Distribution.
Optimum Sorting.
MinimumComparison Sorting.
MinimumComparison Merging.
MinimumComparison Selection.
Networks for Sorting.
External Sorting.
Multiway Merging and Replacement Selection.
The Polyphase Merge.
The Cascade Merge.
Reading Tape Backwards.
The Oscillating Sort.
Practical Considerations for Tape Merging.
External Radix Sorting.
TwoTape Sorting.
Disks and Drums.
Summary, History, and Bibliography.
6. Searching.
Sequential Searching.
Searching by Comparison of Keys.
Searching an Ordered Table.
Binary Tree Searching.
Balanced Trees.
Multiway Trees.
Digital Searching.
Hashing.
Retrieval on Secondary Keys.
Answers to Exercises.
Appendix A: Tables of Numerical Quantities.
Fundamental Constants (decimal).
Fundamental Constants (octal).
Harmonic Numbers, Bernoulli Numbers, Fibonacci Numbers.
Appendix B: Index to Notations.
Всі характеристики
 Видавництво
 Автор
 Категорія
 Номер видання2ге вид.
 Рік1998
 Сторінок800
 Формат170х240 мм
 ОбкладинкаМ'яка
 Тип паперуОфсетний
 МоваАнглійська
 ІлюстраціїЧорнобілі
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